Penjelasan Relative Pronoun

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Penjelasan “ Which “ vs “ That” Beserta Dalam Bahasa Inggris. Sekilas mengenai Relative Pronoun ( Kata Ganti ) dalam bahasa inggris, Relative Pronoun adalah bentuk dari kata ganti dalam bahasa inggris yang menunjuk pada kata benda ( Noun ) yang mendahuluinya. Relative pronoun diletakkan di bagian awal Dependent Clause. Penggunaan dan Contoh Kalimat Relative Pronoun di dalam Relative Clause relative pronoun Who dan Whoever. Who (siapa) dan whoever (siapapun) berfungsi menghubungkan noun berupa orang (subject/object of sentence) dengan verb pada relative clause.Di dalam relative clause, relative pronoun ini berfungsi sebagai subjek atau objek. Relative Pronouns. Relative pronouns adalah pronouns yang digunakan untuk membuat sebuah klausa (sekelompok kata yang merujuk pada sebuah kata benda sebagai penjelas kata benda tersebut). Kata ‘Who’, ‘That’ dan ‘Which’ termasuk relative pronouns. Mereka ini dikelompokan sebagai salah satu jenis pronoun tergantung dari kalimatnya.

Relative Pronouns

Relative Pronouns. Pronoun jenis ini memperkenalkan Adjective clause yang menerangkan noun. Dengan kata lain, relative pronoun adalah kata ganti yang menghubungkan kalimat, yang menerangkan noun. Terdapat 5 (lima) jenis relative pronouns, yaitu who (manusia), which (benda), that (manusia dan benda), whose (obyek pronoun) dan whose (kepemilikan). Pengertian Dan Penjelasan Pronoun. Secara Bahasa Pronoun berarti Kata ganti diri. Itu sih definisi singkat. Buat yang lengkap ini dia: a pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun or a noun phrase. Pronouns therefore take the positions of nouns in sentences. Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan Pada tempat Noun atau Noun Phrase.

A relative pronoun is a pronoun that heads an adjective clause. The relative pronouns are 'that,' 'which,' 'who,' 'whom,' and 'whose.'

Here are some simple examples:
  • That
    • The dog that stole the pie is back.
    • (The relative pronoun is bold. The adjective clause is highlighted.)
  • Which
    • My new dog, which I bought last year, loves green beans.
  • Who
    • The person who bought his car found a 3-carat diamond under the seat.
  • Whom
    • Our lawyer, whom we employed for over a year, was related to the complainant.
  • Whose
    • The young girl whose cat scratched our sofa has offered to replace the cushions.

The Function of Relative Pronouns

The function of a relative pronoun is to head (or introduce) an adjective clause. An adjective clause follows a noun:
(1) To identify it.
For example:
  • The man who won the lottery is outside.
  • (The adjective clause (highlighted) identifies the man.)
(2) To tell us something interesting about it.
For example:
  • Inspector Smith, who won the lottery, is outside.
  • (The adjective clause (highlighted) tells us something interesting about Inspector Smith.)

Click on Two Relative Pronouns

Getting ready...
Getting ready...
Getting ready...
Getting ready...
Getting ready...
Getting ready...
Getting ready...
Getting ready...
Getting ready...

More Examples of Relative Pronouns

In each of these examples, the relative pronoun is bold and the adjective clause is highlighted.
  • The girl who stole your phone is outside.
  • (The relative pronoun 'who' heads an adjective clause that identifies 'the girl.')
  • I rode the bike that Jack gave me back home.
  • (The relative pronoun 'that' heads an adjective clause that identifies 'the bike.')
  • Mrs Miggins, who owns a pie shop, is outside.
  • (The relative pronoun 'who' heads an adjective clause that tells us something interesting about 'Mrs Miggins.')
  • I rode my bike, which now had a dozen bent spokes, back home.
  • (The relative pronoun 'which' heads an adjective clause that tells us something interesting about 'my bike.')

Real-Life Examples of Relative Pronouns

The following relative pronouns head adjective clauses that identify their nouns. (Note that there are no commas.)
  • Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. (President of South Africa Nelson Mandela)
  • An atheist is a man who has no invisible means of support. (Canadian politician John Buchan)
  • Happy is the son whose faith in his mother remains unchallenged. (American novelist Louisa May Alcott)
  • Life is something that everyone should try at least once.
  • (Adjective clauses can also identify pronouns.)
The following relative pronouns head adjective clauses that give unnecessary but interesting information about their nouns. (Note that there are commas.)
  • The sense of flowing, which is so crucial to song, is also crucial to poetry. (US Poet Edward Hirsch)
  • The United Nations, whose membership comprises almost all the states in the world, is founded on the principle of the equal worth of every human being. (UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan)
  • The man Dickens, whom the world at large thought it knew, stood for all the Victorian virtues (probity, kindness, hard work, sympathy for the down-trodden, the sanctity of domestic life) even as his novels exposed the violence, hypocrisy, greed and cruelty of the Victorian age. (Author Robert Gottlieb)

Why Should I Care about Relative Pronouns?

Here are the six most frequently asked questions related to relative pronouns:

(Question 1) Do you put a comma before 'which'?

The answer is sometimes yes and sometimes no. This applies to all relative pronouns, not just 'which.' (Actually, it doesn't apply to 'that,' but we'll cover that point later.) Look at these two examples using 'who':
  • The man who won last week's lottery gave all his money to a donkey sanctuary.
  • My neighbour, who won last week's lottery, gave all his money to a donkey sanctuary.
These two sentences are nearly identical, but one has commas and one doesn't. They are both correct.
It all depends whether the adjective clause (the highlighted text) specifies its noun. If it does (like in the first example, where it specifies 'the man'), then don't use commas. If it doesn't (like in the second example, where it's just additional information about 'my neighbour'), then use commas. Now look at this example:
  • My neighbour who won last week's lottery gave all his money to a donkey sanctuary.
This is also correct. This time the adjective clause is specifying 'my neighbour.' We're now talking about my lottery-winning neighbour as opposed to any neighbours who didn't win the lottery. So, you have to think carefully about whether an adjective clause specifies or doesn't.
Top Tip

Treat the commas like brackets. If you'd happily put brackets around the adjective clause, then use commas because the clause will just be additional information.
Another Top Tip

If you'd happily delete the clause, then it must be just additional information, meaning you should offset it with commas.
So, the question was about using a comma before 'which,' but the answer used examples with 'who.' There is a good reason for that. Lots of Americans, and increasingly Brits, insist on using 'that' instead of 'which' without a comma (i.e., when 'which' heads an adjective clause that specifies its noun). Look at these examples:
  • The dog which bit the postman has returned.
  • The dog that bit the postman has returned.
Both of these are correct, but lots of people find the top one a little awkward. (When a clause specifies its noun, it is called a restrictive clause. When it's just additional information, it's called a non-restrictive clause.)
So, 'which' can head a restrictive adjective clause (without commas) or a non-restrictive one (with commas), but, if you're writing to just Americans, use 'that' for the former.
  • My dog gives a trust which is total.
  • My dog gives a trust that is total.
  • (These are both restrictive adjective clauses.)
  • My dog gives total trust, which is very endearing.
  • (This is a non-restrictive adjective clause.)
You can't use 'that' to head a non-restrictive adjective clause. So, if the question had been 'Do you put a comma before that?' It would have been a much quicker answer. No.
  • How can you govern a country which has 246 varieties of cheese? (Charles De Gaulle)
  • (This translation is fine, but be aware that, for many people (especially Americans), 'that' scans better than 'which' without a comma.)
Let's get back to the main point. Remember that if an adjective clause specifies, there are no commas. If it doesn't, there are. Sometimes, you have to think really clearly about this:
  • War should only be declared by the authority of the people, whose toils and treasures are to support its burdens, instead of the government which is to reap its fruits. (4th US President James Madison)
  • (In this example, the first adjective clause is non-restrictive (i.e., it's just additional information about 'the people' that could be deleted), but the second is restrictive (i.e., it specifies 'the government').)
The sentence above would also be fine with all the commas removed or with one inserted before 'which.' Whether to use a comma or not before a word like 'which' is not an aesthetics thing or a give-your-reader-a-chance-to-breath thing. It's not a fly-by-the-seat-of-your pants thing. It's an it-depends-on-the-precise-intended-meaning thing.)

(Question 2) Can you use 'whose' for inanimate things?

Yes. 'Who' is used for people. 'Which' is used for things. 'Whose' is used for people and things.
  • Never go to a doctor whose office plants have died. (Author Erma Bombeck)
  • An intellectual is someone whose mind watches itself. (French philosopher Albert Camus)
  • (In each example, 'whose' is used with a person.)
  • An invasion of armies can be resisted, but not an idea whose time has come. (French poet Victor Hugo)
  • I could a tale unfold whose lightest word would harrow up thy soul. (from Hamlet by William Shakespeare)
  • (In each example, 'whose' is used with a thing.)

(Question 3) When do you use 'whom'?

Here's the rule: Use 'who' when it's the subject of verb, otherwise use 'whom.'
  • Never lend your car to anyone who calls you mum.
  • ('Who' is the subject of the verb 'calls.')
  • Never lend your car to anyone whom you have given birth to. (Author Erma Bombeck)
  • ('Whom' is not the subject of a verb.)
  • There are two kinds of people: those who say to God, “Thy will be done”, and those to whom God says, “All right, then, have it your way.” (CS Lewis)
  • ('Who' is the subject of the verb 'say.' 'God' is the subject of the verb 'says.' 'Whom' isn't the subject of anything; therefore, 'whom' is correct.)
  • I'm just someone who likes cooking and for whom sharing food is a form of expression. (Maya Angelou)
  • ('Who' is the subject of the verb 'likes.' 'Sharing food' is the subject of the verb 'is.' Whom isn't the subject of anything; therefore, 'whom' is correct.)
This subject is covered more in the entry for the objective case.

(Question 4) Can you use 'that' for people?

That, like 'whose,' can be used for people or things.
  • The dog that bit the postman.
  • (Here, 'that' is used with a thing ('dog').)
  • The postman that bit the dog.
  • (Here, 'that' is used with a person ('postman').)
Try to use 'who' instead of 'that' with people (especially in formal writing) because a fair proportion of your readers might find that with people a little uncouth.
  • The postman who bit the dog.
  • (This is far more acceptable…well, grammatically at least.)

(Question 5) What's the difference between 'whose' and 'who's'?

'Who's' is a contraction. It is short for 'who is' or 'who has.' If you can't expand your 'who's' to one of those, then you should be using 'whose.'
  • A weed is a plant who's virtues have never been discovered.
  • (You can't expand 'who's' to 'who is' or 'who has,' so 'who's' is wrong. It should be 'whose.')

(Question 6) Should you avoid ending a sentence in a preposition?

Penjelasan Here's the quick answer: No. Here's the longer answer:
When 'whom' or 'which' is the object of a preposition, you can start the adjective clause with the preposition.

Penjelasan Relative Pronouns

  • We have to put up with most from those on whom we most depend. (Spanish philosopher Baltasar Gracian)
  • (The preposition is 'on.')
  • I operated on the assumption that there was an absolute scale of values against which art could be measured. I didn't trust my own subjective responses. (Playwright Tom Stoppard)
  • (The preposition is 'against.')
Starting an adjective clause with a preposition is done to avoid ending the sentence with a preposition, which is still considered by many to be a grammar crime. Let's be clear on this. It's okay to end a sentence in a preposition, but some of your readers might think it's wrong or too informal. So, in formal writing, try to avoid ending a sentence in a preposition. Don't think of it as a rule. Think of it as a word game. However, if avoiding a sentence-ending preposition makes your sentence sound stilted, then either reword your sentence or stop playing and leave your preposition at the end.

Key Points

Penjelasan Tentang Materi Relative Pronoun

Penjelasan Relative Pronoun
  • If your adjective clause (i.e., the clause headed by a word like 'which,' 'who,' or 'whose') isn't needed to specify (i.e., you'd happily delete it or put it in brackets), then offset it with commas.
  • Only use 'who' when it's the subject of a verb; otherwise, use 'whom.'
  • You can use 'whose' with inanimate things.
  • You can use 'that' with people (but it's pretty informal).
  • If you can't expand your 'who's' to 'who is,' or 'who has,' you should be using 'whose.'
  • You can end a sentence with a preposition if you want…just don't. It's a fun game. Yay!
Interactive Exercise
Here are three randomly selected questions from a larger exercise, which can be edited, printed to create an exercise worksheet, or sent via email to friends or students.

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See Also

Using whose with inanimate objectsWhat is an adjective clause?What is the subjective case?What is the objective case?What is the possessive case?What are pronouns?The different types of pronounsDemonstrative pronounsIndefinite pronounsInterrogative pronounsPersonal pronounsPossessive pronounsReciprocal pronounsReflexive pronounsGlossary of grammatical terms

Penjelasan Tentang Relative Clauses Beserta Contoh Kalimat Terlengkap

Apa itu relative clauses?

relative clause” adalah anak kalimat yang memodifikasi noun ( kata benda ) atau noun phrase.

Contoh :

The boywho is sitting is the manager

The noun the boy dimodifikasi oleh the relative clause “who is sitting.”

Relative clauses memberikan informasi penting untuk menjelaskan atau mengidentifikasi orang – orang atau benda yang sedang kita bicarakan.

Bagaimana menggunakan relative clauses

Mereka digunakan untuk menyediakan informasi tambahan. Dibawah ini adalah contoh informasi tambahan yang dimaksud:

Menjelaskan sesuatu (menjelaskan klausa),
The boy who is talking there is a candidate of the winner in this competition.

Atau memberikan sesuatu yang tidak dibutuhkan tetapi merupakan informasi yang menarik).
Adam Johnson, who was a famous actor, died of an accident.

Relative clauses dapat dibagi menjadi:

  1. A relative pronoun: who, whom, which, that, whose.

    Contoh: “The girl whois standing there is my sister.”

  2. A relative adverb: where, why and when.

    Contoh:” The park where I have visited is beautiful.”

  3. None of them.

    Contoh:“The girl I met is so beautiful”

Relative Pronouns

who – subject or object pronoun yang dipakai untuk orang

The police caught the person who killed many people.

which – subject or object pronoun yang dipakai untuk benda

He reads the book which entitle “Red Rose”.
She visited the park which you told me.

which – mengacu pada seluruh kalimat

She were successful which is proud.

whom – digunakan untuk object pronoun untuk orang khususnya dalam non-restrictive clause.(dalam restrictive caluse menggunakan who)

The girl whom you told me about got the best score in biology.

that – subjek atau objek pronoun untuk orang, hewan, dan benda dalam restrictive clause.

I like the motorcycle that is over there.

Relative adverbs

where – merujuk pada tempat atau lokasi

The hotel where I take a nap is good.

when – merujuk pada waktu

There are times when you feel so enthusiasm.

why – merujuk pada alasan

This is why I really love her.